How Sputtering Systems Work

Sputtering is like priming a wall, but instead of paint we capture electrons. Sputtering helps engineers build more powerful processors and conductors to move energy and complete processes. Two huge applications for this process appear in computing and solar power.


Sputtering is a scientific method for applying thin layers to a surface by bombarding it with electrons and other energy particles. Sputtering is typically a slow process, and it’s best used to cover small surface areas.

Magnetron sputtering places a magnetic field around the source material that you wish to apply your layers too. The source material is electrically charged as the chamber is filled with inter gases. An alternating AC/DC current is used to magnetize the ions to the surface material, effectively bonding your layers to the surface. Some of the ions will escape the magnetic field, the rest will impact the source and deposit a fine layer of material onto the surface.

PVD Thermal Evaporation uses high temperatures to melt the materials applied to the source. A vacuum is used to create a kind of cooling chamber, condensing the vapors to form substances that can attach to the surface.

Ion beam sputtering ejects particles from the source material, and forces them to interact with electrons from a secondary source. The target is covered in neutral atoms during this process, which makes ion sputtering systems better at conducting and insulating materials and parts. You might see ion sputtering when manufacturers design a computer hard drive.

Practical Applications

We normally see sputtering during the manufacture of computer parts and solar cells.

A basic photovoltaic cell uses similar materials to what is found in a semiconductor. The process of converting sunlight into energy occurs at an atomic level, so there must be a mechanism for the conductor to actually absorb and convert the sunlight into energy.

The first solar power storage system was built in 1954, but the battery was deemed too expensive for practical usage. Today, thanks in part to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, solar power is becoming more affordable. Each cell contains a wafer-thin semiconductor that has been treated to form an electric field. The treatment leaves one side positively charged, and the other negatively charged. When light filters into the cell, the semiconductor material applied through sputtering knocks the unnecessary electrons loose. Because the conductors are attached to the cells, and have a positive and negative charge, the loose electrons get pulled into the circuit. In essence, the process of sputtering is integral to generating electricity with solar power.


This guest post was brought to you by Denton Vacuum, LLC, makers of sputtering systems for solar cells and semiconductors.

Alternatives to a Traditional Mattress

If you’ve slept on a traditional mattress your entire life, you might not even be aware of the alternatives available to you. Continue reading as this article will cover all your options, many of which might offer you a much better night’s rest than what you’re used to.

The best option is polyurethane foam. Canada has plenty of options, so you won’t need to look far in order to find a mattress available. Why is foam such a great choice? For one thing, it disperses your weight much better than traditional choices. When you sleep on a normal spring mattress, your weight isn’t distributed evenly, meaning the springs push back unevenly. As a result, different parts of your body have unnecessary pressure forcing back on it while you try to sleep all night. If you wake up from a full night’s rest with aches and pains or you lost sleep from tossing and turning, this could be the culprit.

Another option is upholstery foam. Canada once again has plenty of suppliers. Upholstery foam is much thinner as it’s used for, you guessed it, upholstery. For this reason, it’s a great choice for trying out foam as you won’t be paying the full amount for a mattress, but you’ll still get a sense for how it feels and the kind of sleep it can deliver.


Article submitted by Canada Foam by Mail. They offer a wide selection of mattresses you want, whether it’s a standard foam option or a polyurethane foam mattress.

Consider Foam for Your Furniture’s Cushions

Because we can’t stand around all day, we need furniture in our home to eventually allow us to take a load off. Of course, we want our furniture to be comfortable as much for our own sake as for our guests. When we have company, we want our sofa cushions to be as comfortable, if not more so, than the ones they have in their own home.

Unfortunately, cushions can’t stay comfortable forever. Over the years they begin wearing out until finally, one day, you’re sitting there and realize it’s no longer fun to sit down on your sofa.

The good news is you don’t have to replace the sofa. Thanks to the internet, it is easier than ever to replace those sofa seat cushions. In fact, you can often get a deal on making that sofa more comfortable than ever.

One reason is because, more and more, foam is being used for furniture cushions. Foam provides far superior support, and thus comfort, to the person sitting or lying on it. That’s because it perfectly displaces your weight over its surface. What’s more, it won’t provide the kind of pushing back you get from traditional springs or the complete lack thereof from other options.

Don’t let the years take away comfort from your home. Purchase affordable foam replacements and you’ll begin enjoying your sofa again in no time.


Article submitted by The Foam Factory. The company sells new cushions for all kinds of furniture, so you don’t have to throw it away and pay more for replacements.

Giving Back

Immigrants have been part of any countries rich history for as long as time can tell. The term “the grass is greener on the other side” has been implanted into people’s mind, especially those coming from less developed countries. People have various reasons as to why they would decide to migrate to another country, whether for safety or because they think they will be able to live more prosperously, every immigrant has their own reason. Some immigrants simply leech off the progress of its host country for mere survival, while others contribute to its progress as a nation.

One of these people who have contributed to the development of its host country is Len Blavatnik. A Russian-American industrialist who have brought significant developments in the field of science. Len Bravatnik Access Industries is a company which he created in order to manage holdings in focused on natural resources and chemicals, media and telecommunications, and real estate. Also a philanthropist, he has been a generous supporter for various cultural and charitable institutions. In 2007, he created the New York Academy of Sciences Bravatnik Awards for Young Scientists to acknowledge promising scientists and engineers in New York. These are only to name a few of his contributions to the society.

Immigrants shouldn’t be looked at negatively because not all of them wish to free load into prosperity. There are those who, after reaching success in their careers, realize the role of their host country and decide to give back to society for what it has given them.


This article was submitted by Access Industries; started by one Lan Blavatnik, who initiated the Blavatnik Family Foundation funding research and scholars for the development of the nation.

Consider Foam for Your Insulation

When it comes to materials we use for creature comforts, foam has to be right up there as one of the best. It’s effective, versatile, affordable and, because of these characteristics, it has countless applications. One great option for foam is using it as insulation. Canadians can always use more of that, especially when things get cold. To learn more about why foam makes such great insulation, continue reading.

By its nature, insulation is a fairly simple thing. You have walls that provide your home with shelter and you use foam to better fortify them and help do their job. But as technology has progressed, we have been able to find better and better ways to help insulation do this. Foam is a great example.

For one thing, there is open and closed cell foam. Canada homes are filled with both and both. Open cell foam simply means that many of the cells inside it are open, making for a lighter material that is also more flexible. On the other hand, closed cell foam has more cells which are closed ant this makes for a more rigid material. Both have their own advantages when it comes to insulation. The one that’s best for you will depend on your unique needs.

Don’t forget sound proofing foam too. While you may not choose it for insulation, you can use it in your walls to make sure sound from outside is dulled instead of interrupting your peace.


Article submitted by Canada foam by mail. The company supplies just about everything you need to stay comfortable, from mattresses, to pillows to custom cushions.

Seat Foams Explained

When it comes to sitting down, there probably doesn’t seem like there’s much to it. For the most, it is a leisurely activity, after all. As far as modern amenities go, our couches, sofas and loveseats may not be the most advanced science in our homes, but that doesn’t mean they’re any less important.

Seat foam, for example, is the material that takes our weight when we sit down on much of our favorite furniture. Sofa seat cushions are built to take our weight and give enough push back that we don’t immediately sink and hit the furniture’s frame.

There is a very specific science that goes into this ability. However, this science does not make the foam impervious to old age. After enough exposure to sitting, your foam will begin losing its touch and you will need to consider replacing it.

When looking to replace your seat foam, it’s best to look for foam that is pre-cut in the shape you need it. The other alternative is to buy stuffing which will necessitate a boring, laborious process no one needs. Also, be sure you’re purchasing the right kind of foam or you’ll immediately notice that your seat now has too much, or too little, give.

While it’s easy to take for granted, the right kind of foam makes all the difference. Be sure to keep an eye on yours and, when necessary, to replace it properly . ______________________________________________________________________

Article submitted by The Foam Factory. They specialize in foam replacement for everything from couches to mattresses to the furniture in your boat and other miscellaneous needs.

Understanding the Different Types of Foam inthe Market

We all use a variety of foam in our household, may it be for our living room sofa or a bed mattress. As our demands continue to change and increase, foam manufacturers need to keep up and introduce more kinds of foam. Nowadays, we can purchase foams such as a sound deadening foam perfect for music rooms and family theatre rooms. Searching for a polyurethane foam Canada is now easy with the aid of the Internet. Simply do a web search and you will be directed to hundreds of leads where you can purchase the foam that you need.

Foam is classified depending on its use. You can purchase an outdoor foam for your patio furniture as this has the ability to adapt in varying weather conditions. It also allows liquid to pass through it easily so your seats will stay dry. Conventional foam is another popular type of foam as it is commonly used as filler for sofas, seats and seat backs. For do-it-yourselfers, a foam sheet is always a good option as they can easily measure and cut it for their home projects.


Article submitted by Canada Foam By Mail. If you are in search for a supplier of good quality foam, then you may want to check out Canada Foam By Mail. The company has consistently provided top quality foam products such as acoustic foam panels, custom cushions, jewelry display holders and many more.

Knowing the Different Types of Foam

Take time to observe your home, it is a certain that you will find foam used in many of your furniture. Most foam is not only used as a mattress but also as a cushion filling for your living room sofas, dining room chairs and small pillows. Foam is not solely used for home furniture, it is also often used for outdoor applications such as a boat mattress replacement, RV and yacht seats.

There are many kinds of foam available in the market and each has its own purpose. As an example, conventional foam which is the most popular type of foam is used as filler for sofas and other high wear and tear seats. A conventional foam is durable and would not easily sag through the years, hence, it is your best option should you need to overhaul your upholstery. Acoustic foam is perfect for music rooms and family theatre rooms. This type of foam helps the sound waves disperse equally inside the room to create a more fine sound while limiting the amount of sound emitting out of the room. For outdoor furniture, one should invest on a dryfast foam as it helps in drawing out liquid to keep seats dry and odor-free.


Article submitted by The Foam Factory. The Foam Factory is one of the leading online suppliers of foam products for various needs. They offer boat foam, mattresses, RV bedding and a whole lot more.

Uses and Benefits of Artificial Grass

The market for fake lawn grass is rapidly growing because it is a great alternative to natural grass. In today’s modern developments, artificial grass looks and feels more natural. Artificial turf prices vary according to the size, color variation and infill. Artificial grass is not only used for home applications but it is also very popular for sport pitches, resorts and office buildings.

Unlike natural grass, artificial grass does not require heavy maintenance. You will be saving up hours per week from mowing and watering your lawn. This is the perfect option for households wherein old people reside to or for holiday homes where the owners are not always around to look after their lawn. Artificial grass is environmental friendly. You will save up gallons of water per year and reduce carbon emissions coming from lawn mowers. It also would not need any sprays that are loaded with chemicals, such as herbicides and pesticides. It is safe for children, it will not trigger any allergies unlike natural grass. Artificial grass is a great option especially for locations where natural grass has difficulty growing. Best of all, artificial grass will look neat and green all year round.

Article submitted by Artificial Turf Supply. Artificial Turf Supply provides high quality artificial residential turf as well as for commercial use. All of Artificial Turf Supply’s products are made in the United States and have exceeded EPA standards and received various certifications and credits.

Know Your Foam: Open vs. Closed Cell Foam

Believe it or not, one of the most widely used materials in the world is foam. It has a wide variety of applications ranging from packaging, cushioning, insulation, sound proofing and so much more. Given the wide usage of foam, then perhaps it is time to learn more about our little polyurethane friend?

Foam is usually made of polyurethane and depending on the intended application, can contain infusion of other materials such as charcoal or gas mixtures. Even the composition of the polyurethane itself can differ for different foam applications. Generally speaking though, there are two classifications of foam based on construction; open cell foam and closed cell foam.

Open cell foam is what is generally used for cushions and packaging because they are softer than close cell foam. It is called open cell because if you look at it, the construction of the foam has. This open construction makes it more flexible and more comfortable for cushion applications. The downside to open cell foam though is that they are less rigid and are not as good as closed cell foam for insulation.

Closed cell foam are the tougher lot in the world of foams, they are generally used for home insulation and soundproofing. They are called closed cell because they do not have pores and are rigid. The downside to closed cell is that it can’t be used for cushions.

Now, if you are looking for polyurethane foam Canada or closed cell foam Canada, there are countless options that even deliver nationwide!

This article was submitted by Canada Foam by Mail. If you are looking to get some flexible polyurethane foamconveniently shipped to your doorstep, then Canada Foam by Mailis the right option for you!